The Mind Science Foundation
117 West El Prado Drive
San Antonio, TX, 78212, USA
Tel: (210) 821-6094
Can we tie details of someone's decision making patterns directly to past and future behavior?
The purpose of this study is to explore and characterize the range and variation of conscious and unconscious traits associated with decision making. We will finalize development of an in-house portable test that contains a suite of interactive assessments. These gamified neuropsychological tests quantify participants’ decision-making characteristics. In particular, we will conduct an exploratory analysis to assess participants on aggression, empathy, executive function, impulse-control, set shifting, and planning. By bringing together a diverse set of expertise with the single goal of understanding the spectrum of consciousness, the project anticipates results that are meaningful across the contributing disciplines.
Our battery of tests bears on a fundamental, but mostly unexplored dimension of human behavior: how much difference is there between individuals? Do these conscious and unconscious traits cluster, or are they evenly spread? The proposed study offers an opportunity to tie details of individual decision making directly to past and future behavior, yielding a deeper understanding and more realistic range of the variability of human decision making.
Investigating the hard problem of consciousness research - can we tie consciousness to a particilar group of neurons in the brain?
Consciousness is central to life: Everything we see, hear, feel and know is through the lens of conscious experience. Yet, we still do not know how consciousness is generated by the brain. The material basis of consciousness is one of the oldest philosophical questions, sometimes known as the Hard Problem of consciousness, and it remains one of the most difficult problems in science. Over the last 25 years, cognitive neuroscientists have focused on finding the neural activity that strongly correlates with the contents of conscious perception (or ‘conscious percepts’), and the accumulating data has driven the development of a multitude of new theories of consciousness. The two most prominent theories to emerge are the Global Neuronal Workspace (GNW) and Integrated Information Theory (IIT). While these two theories have been debated for more than a decade, the project we propose here will be the first to directly assess them simultaneously using an empirical research paradigm. In our project, we propose a critical experiment, in which the two theories diverge in their predictions regarding the neuronal interactions that should be observed during conscious percepts. Specifically, GNW, which supposes the executive functions to be critical for consciousness, predicts the crucial involvement of prefrontal cortex in generation of conscious percepts. IIT, on the other hand, which claims that integration of information is essential for consciousness, does not treat the prefrontal cortex as special and predicts that integrated interactions within sensory areas are sufficient for conscious percepts. To obtain the necessary spatiotemporal resolution for causal analyses as well as the spatial coverage of brain data, we will utilize rare intracranial recordings of neural activity in epilepsy patients, who are implanted with electrodes for the purpose of epilepsy monitoring and treatment. Critically for our project, we will modify an existing "no-report" experimental paradigm to make it suitable for our purpose, where we can reliably infer a subject’s conscious perception without requiring them to report it. Since perceptual reports are known to involve the prefrontal cortex, the no-report paradigm is critical for strictly examining the role of prefrontal cortex in conscious experience. By quantitatively contrasting the two most promising theories of consciousness in an experimental condition where they clearly diverge, we will be setting up a new empirical testing ground for consciousness, advancing the science of consciousness into a new stage. This kind of empirical assessment will mature and refine the theories of consciousness. Such theories will eventually help us develop beneficial clinical and engineering technologies, such as monitoring device for consciousness in people who cannot speak, or even animals, as well as novel algorithms for artificial intelligence with which it can make efficient decisions without much prior data.
Do we process memories better when we are asleep?
Sleeping and dreaming have long mystified humanity and been a focal point for philosophical and artistic exploration. An intriguing speculation is that we use our time sleeping to organize and regulate memory storage — unlike a computer, which does nothing at all when asleep. Extending this idea, we speculate that the conscious experiences one has when awake are partly a function of what the brain does in sleep. But strategies for understanding sleep are quite limited; reports made upon awakening disclose very little of the complexity of sleep, which includes a series of stages defined by the electrical activity of the brain (Stage 1, 2, etc.). Even with these standard electrophysiological methods, we are still very much in the dark about what happens during sleep. This project will contribute to ushering in a new era in understanding sleep and consciousness. We will systematically alter the functioning of the brain during sleep, with consequences for a person’s conscious experiences after awakening. Unconscious processing can have a striking influence on conscious thoughts. Results from this study will broaden research on the mechanisms whereby memory change during sleep impacts the conscious memory experiences we have when awake.
How do people with epilepsy process and control emotions?
We are conducting a scientific study to characterize the neural changes that occur as a result of compassion meditation in patients with intractable epilepsy. Compassion meditation has been found to enhance positive affect, reduce psychological and physical distress, and enhance overall life-satisfaction, thus it may present a potentially beneficial complementary treatment for enhancing the psychological well-being of those suffering with epilepsy. Specifically, we are interested in exploring the changes in the amygdala network induced through this meditation. The aim of our research is to provide new insights into processing and control of emotions in this patient population. This research may also present an opportunity to discover new information about the mechanism of epileptogenic networks, for example, whether an epileptogenic network is affected by the affective-cognitive strategies involved in compassion meditation. Finally, this research will allow for a deeper understanding of the neural processes underlying compassion meditation, and of the extent to which these processes may share similarities and differences with the neural patterns underlying postictal religiosity.
Effects of epilepsy on consciousness are profound and multi-dimensional, affecting levels of arousal and contents of consciousness, as well as such core dimensions as selfidentity. Contemplative traditions point to capacity for love, compassion and empathy as one of the central factors determining the quality of human experience. Some see it as being, together with awareness and intuition-wisdom, one of the fundamental dimensions of consciousness. Chronic intractable epilepsy is a disabling disorder that carries significant public health burden. This research aims to further our understanding of epilepsy, and of the potentially new ways in which we can optimize the quality of life for those suffering with this disease.
What is it like to be a child?
How does the world look to them? In spite of much research on adult correlates of consciousness, we know very little about the conscious experience of young children. Typically, philosophers have assumed that children’s consciousness must be more limited or impoverished than that of adults’. Indeed, many functional features that are correlated with adult consciousness, like executive control and focused attention, are much less apparent in children. In this project we explore an alternative hypothesis—that children’s visual experience might be different than, but not inferior too adult visual experience. In particular, we explore whether children’s consciousness might operate at a broad, more diffuse level, allowing them to appreciate the collective properties of their world (i.e. the “gist”) despite limited access to the details. This may seem surprising, since some theories of consciousness suggest that our Gestalt sense of seeing a vast and complete world is merely an illusion, and that the content of awareness is limited to the small number of details and objects to which our working memory provides us access. Recent work with adults, however, challenges this assumption, and shows that gist phenomenology relies on the operation of a dedicated visual mechanism known as ensemble coding. Ensemble coding operates parallel to, and separately from, access to the details. Here, we determine, for the first time, whether children are able to engage this important gist perception mechanism. In doing so, our work will provide novel and long-overdue evidence that children’s conscious experience is either richer or even more limited than previously thought. As such, our results should have far-reaching implications, not just for characterizing the development of ensemble coding for the first time, but also for providing new insights into the phenomenology of visual experience in childhood.
Is consciousness a binary (all-or-nothing) phenomenon or can it be present in degrees?
We can start with the assumption that awake, alert humans are conscious, but most of us assume that consciousness extends to other animals as well. What is it like to be a dog, or a bat, or a monkey, or a fly? Drs. Phillips and Sherwood suggest that we begin investigating this question by looking at some of our closest relatives, our primate cousins, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys. These animals have brains that are remarkably similar to human brains, but may differ in some important ways. Phillips and Sherwood propose using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study networks of brain activity involving the precuneus, a part of the parietal cortex that may play a special role in some of the mental activities that seem most uniquely human, such as curiosity, self-awareness, and self-reflection. Phillips proposes that primate evolution may have involved changes in the network of brain activity in different regions of the precuneus, and that transitions in the organization of these networks, from monkey, to ape, to human, can tell us something about the gradual emergence, in the history of primates, of the mental attributes of self-reflective consciousness, that quality of our mental life that we often think of, perhaps not entirely accurately, as most uniquely human.
Does the brain produce molecules that regulate levels of consciousness?
We know that states of consciousness are regulated by distributed brain networks and a diverse set of signaling molecules. One of the most common of these molecules is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We know that drugs that bind to GABA-A receptors can inactivate brain regions and turn on sleep. While many scientists predict that there is a naturally occuring substance, what pharmacologists call an "endogenous ligand," that can turn on GABA-A receptors and turn down consciousness, the molecule has yet to be identified. Dr Rye and colleagues have reported evidence that they have found the molecule. If they are correct, this finding will constitute a major advance in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling states of consciousness, and suggest new possible therapeutic targets for treatments of disorders of consciousness.
Where in the brain does consciousness occur?
Neuroscientists believe that we become conscious of what we see when signals from the retina are processed in the brain. But where in the brain does consciousness occur? Maier and Cox propose a novel experimental technique to block conscious awareness, combined with brain imaging techniques, to show how the brain translates visual input into conscious percepts. This investigation will help answer the question of how and where unconscious neural activity generates conscious awareness.
The intimate relationship between consciousness and social awareness.
Animals with complex social organizations usually demonstrate complex cognitive capacities. Did consciousness evolve as a way for animals to solve social problems, such as who is a potential friend, and who is a potential enemy? Taylor Rubin and Frans de Waal propose to study the social behavior of spider monkeys in the Ecuadorian rain forest to help answer this question. They will investigate how communication patterns in monkeys predict the formation and dissolution of social groups. This research will help shed light on important questions about how the evolution of complex brains in primates mirrors the development of complex societies, culture and consciousness.
Creating a practical tool to assess levels of consciousness.
To be conscious of our world, we must be capable of combining a diverse array of sensory inputs—this is integration, and distinguishing what one set of sensory inputs means in contrast to another set—this is differentiation. Tononi and colleagues have proposed a mathematical model, integrated information theory, to account for how the representations of our conscious minds match the complexity of the world we are embedded in. Tononi and Boly propose a computer simulation to show how consciousness evolves, as simulated organisms evolve in a complex simulated world. They then propose to test this model of how conscious brains “match” input from a complex world, by predicting differences in brain activity when people look at meaningful visual scenes, in contrast to brain activity while viewing random visual “noise.”
An investigation of the hypothesis that consciousness is an emergent property produced when neurons collectively interact in special ways.
We understand many biological details of the brain, but relatively little about its most intriguing feature: it produces a conscious, self-aware mind. How does consciousness arise? A reasonable hypothesis shared by many is that consciousness is an emergent property produced when neurons collectively interact in special ways. This project will investigate emergent properties linked to consciousness in local cortical networks, and expect that such investigations will, for the first time, begin to reveal important aspects of the microstructure of consciousness.
How can we communicate with severely brain-injured patients?Continued funding on a project using EEG techniques to assess the presence of minimally conscious states in severely brain injured patients. The work was reported in the journal Lancet, and cited in a popular press account in the New York Times on November 10, 2011.